Today we know a lot more about the importance of pre-conception care, and are aware that careful planning can have a positive impact on the health of the couple and the baby, both while in the womb and throughout life.
Pre-conception care is not solely an issue for the gals. Did you know, for example, that it takes three months for sperm to develop so that they are capable of fertilising an egg? Pre-conception care for men can improve the viability and functionality of their sperm as well as provide a general sense of wellbeing, so we advise both partners to be prepared.
Ideally, pre-conception care starts four to six months before the planned time of conception (obviously for many it starts with “going off the pill”). If you aren’t able to work with time-span then try for at least one month so that you can build up adequate stores of folic acid and other vital nutrients.
There are many theories and recommendations to help get pregnant, but common to most of the research are three basic aims:
To make these points even clearer, we have come up with 16 points on how to get pregnant. For some, these will be a challenge, so start small and keep progressing.
Remember that the day before ovulation is the most important day for intercourse to ensure the freshness of both sperm and egg. If you are unsure of when you ovulate, use an ovulation kit or read up about understanding your cycle.
It seems highly likely that smoking lowers a man’s sperm count; it may lead to sperm abnormalities (sperm count and motility) and may be a factor in impotence. Even more notably, smoking has severe effects on female fertility, such as ovulation, and well-documented effects on embryonic development in pregnant women, for example, low birth-weight infants. Smoking also lowers the body’s total vitamin C. Vitamin C can potentially reduce some of the side-effects from smoking such as poor eyesight and ‘ageing’ of our cells.
Most government agencies recommend that you avoid drinking entirely when planning for pregnancy so that if you were to become pregnant without knowing, alcohol won’t affect the baby. Recent research has also suggested that fathers who drink heavily during the month prior to conception have babies that on average weigh 6.5 ounces less than other babies (cited in Telles, 2004).
Caffeine significantly increases your chances of miscarriage as well as potentially lowering fertility in both men and women.
Try to limit your exposure to toxins such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, artificial sweeteners and recreational drugs. Chemicals such as solvents, pesticides and many household products should also be avoided.
The risk of pesticides is dose-related: the greater your exposure, the greater the likelihood that you will have a reaction. The effect on our health of pesticide residue in our food is not yet clearly documented. Obviously, a way to avoid pesticides is to buy organic produce and meats. ‘Organic-certified produce’ requires that the food was grown, harvested, stored and transported without the use of synthetic chemicals, irradiation or fumigants. Not only is there an ever-increasing number of organic outlets but many supermarket chains now retail their own organic brands.
If you are on medications, review them with you medical practitioner. Check your medicine cabinet at home for drugs that may affect fertility and pregnancy. For men this may include Tagamet for heartburn and Azulfidine for rheumatoid arthritis. Women may need to review antibiotics and painkillers and – under the guidance of a pharmacist or healthcare professional – swap to a more appropriate medication.
The importance of healthy body weight for women who want to get pregnant has been well documented. The sex hormones produced by men and women are closely linked to weight. It appears that an extra 10% to 14% of body fat can reduce a woman’s chances of conception. (Mayo Clinic, 2001). Obesity in women is a high risk issue in conception and pregnancy; for example, overweight women are more likely to have miscarriages. Likewise, underweight women have a higher risk of premature labour and anaemia.
Testicles are generally 2°C cooler than the rest of the male body; sperm functions best at 34-35 degrees. So guys, it’s best to avoid spas and saunas and opt for boxer shorts, a sexier look. The popular myth about tight jeans and male fertility is just as said – a myth.
Relaxation can play an integral role when wanting to get pregnant, with evidence that those with reduced stress or improved ability to handle stress may have better rates of conception. Further, this has a positive effect on the foetus. Even mild stress can interfere with a man’s testosterone production and can lower sperm count (Telles, 2004). This evidence may shed some light on why many couples with fertility issues found that after IVF or adopting they fell pregnant without assistance. Given the elusive nature of stress, it remains a difficult subject to substantiate; however, there’s no doubt that lifestyle changes that enhance positive feelings are of benefit.
Moderate and regular exercise is important in any healthy lifestyle. Going for a brisk walk, exercising at the gym or playing sport all contribute to general health and wellbeing and ultimately improve chances of getting pregnant by lowering the risks of diseases thought to be caused by inactivity and overweight.
But- over-exercising is not advisable for women as this can adversely affect hormone balance and impair ovulation (due to the lack of body fat). Further, in the event of conception, excessive exercise can impair placental and foetal growth, as well as potentially overheat the foetus. Exercise considered ‘excessive’ would be running the equivalent of 16 kilometres a week.
Studies have shown that a nutritious diet with adequate protein and complex carbohydrates, nutrient-dense foods, foods with healthy fats over unhealthy fats and one that is high in fresh fruit and vegetables provides a solid nutritional basis for health and conception. A good pre-conception care diet is one that is high in vitamin C, zinc and folic acid (particularly for women); for example, red capsicum, coloured berries and guava are all very rich in vitamin C; nuts and seeds are high in zinc; and grains are good sources of folic acid (although supplementation is commonly recommended for B9).
Restrictive diets have been shown to have a negative effect on a women’s hormonal levels (such as progesterone) and consequently affect couples trying to get pregnant, so avoid heavy dieting.
Both men and women should avoid over-eating sugar, especially added sugars, as this can interfere with hormone levels via our insulin balance.
Every cell in our body contains water. Water is the fluid in which all life-processes occur in the body. The bodily functions our body fluids perform include: transporting nutrients and waste throughout the body; forming much of the structure of large molecules; and providing suspension by acting as a shock-absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord and the amniotic sac surrounding the foetus in the womb. Furthermore, many chemical reactions occur in fluid; water acts as the solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose and a huge range of other small molecules; it is also important in lubricating and cushioning joints, assisting in the regulation of body temperature and maintaining blood volume.
Drink quality water throughout the day. If your urine is coloured, has a strong odour and you urinate infrequently, you are likely to be dehydrated. Fluid intake is particularly important in hotter weather, when exercising, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Studies have shown that taking supplements of dietary folic acid before pregnancy and during the first trimester significantly lowers the risk of neural tube defects. Talk to your pharmacist or healthcare professional about the right supplement for you.
Particularly important if you are considered to be in a high-risk category. Women in a high-risk category, such as those with an illness, history of miscarriage, anxiety etc., should consider supplementation under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional; this may also be wise for many men.
As mentioned, it’s important to start taking B9 and also consider a multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains zinc, iron, vitamin C, B group vitamins and vitamin E. Remember, though, that supplements are not a substitute for a good diet but rather a safeguard. Also, research indicates that the benefits of these nutrients is greatest in our foods rather than when taken as a supplement.
Note that women wanting to get pregnant should not take vitamins A and D without supervision because they can potentially be toxic.
Especially cats, regarding toxoplasmosis and potential effects on the unborn child.
Other pre-conception care considerations include testing for rubella immunity, diabetes, blood pressure and a full blood count (ensuring iron status is adequate). Having a dental check-up is also recommended so that any treatment can be done before pregnancy.
For more information see Getting Pregnant.
This information has been provided by Leanne Cooper from Cadence Health. Leanne is a qualified nutritionist and mother of two very active boys. Thank you to Christian McErvale for his research.
This information should not replace the expertise of qualified health professionals. Always check for relevant credentials when sourcing fitness and health professionals.