Implanon is one of the most popular forms of hormonal contraception currently being used by women. This is because it’s cost effective, low risk and one of the safest forms of contraception available. Though like many contraceptive options, it suits some women and not others. For those who are keen to conceive, who are experiencing unwanted Implanon side effects or who just want to “have a break” from using contraception, removal of their Implanon device becomes necessary.
Some women experience side effects from having Implanon and aren’t convinced it’s the right contraceptive choice for them and their partner. But according to the evidence, most side effects settle down within three months of having the device inserted.
Implanon is a small rod of flexible plastic. It looks just like a matchstick from one of those matchbooks people collect from restaurants. It is 4 cms long and 2 mms wide and small enough to be very disceet when it is in place, inserted just under the woman’s skin. The plastic rod is infused with etonogestrel which is a synthetic female hormone, very similar to progesterone. And it is this hormone which prevents conception from occurring. Etonogestrel is slowly released into the bloodstream from the rod for about three years, after which time it either needs to be removed or a new one inserted.
Implanon cannot dissolve and won’t travel anywhere until it is removed. It also contains a small amount of barium sulphate which makes it clearly visible on x-ray. Very occasionally, it is necessary for women to have an x-ray or ultrasound so that the exact location can be found.
It is important that the Implanon is easily felt under the skin. This means it can be easily located and seen as a slightly raised rectangular rod just under the surface of the skin. Implanon is most commonly inserted just above the elbow joint, on the inside aspect of the upper arm.
Like many contraceptive devices, Implanon works by a combination of factors. It prevents ovulation so that there is no egg to be fertilised in the first place. It makes the lining of the uterus thin and not suitable for a fertilised egg to nestle in, as well as thickening the cervical mucous. This acts as an effective barrier for the sperm to work their way through to the uterus.
It is important for women who have Implanon inserted to keep a mental and physical record of when it was inserted in the first place. As the three years approaches, plans can be made for its removal or replacement.
Your General Practitioner or local Family Planning Clinic will be able to remove the Implanon device. Health care practitioners need to be trained in the removal of Implanon and although it is not a complex procedure, this still requires a degree of skill.
If the Implanon is not clearly visible under the skin, it is important to seek a health care practitioner who has skills in more complicated removal. If you are planning to have another one inserted immediately, then it is possible to use the same cut in the skin. It only takes 10-15 minutes to carry out the removal procedure.
You will need to have a local anaesthetic injection into the skin around the Implanon to numb the area. Local anaesthetic injections can sting and take a few minutes to be effective. You may want to speak with your pharmacist or GP about using local anaesthetic skin patches before the injections.
A small cut (incision) of around 2-3 mm is made and the Implanon is removed with a pair of surgical tweezers. If the area has been properly anesthetised you should not feel anything other than a little pulling and tension. You may need to have a stitch (suture) inserted if the cut was big enough but generally this is not necessary. In most women, the skin edges sit closely together and heal neatly. Occasionally, a minute scar is left but with time this will fade to white and become barely noticeable.
Occasionally, Implanon is inserted too deeply which results in a more difficult removal. If the Implanon can’t be felt then it is sometimes necessary to have an ultrasound or an x-ray to locate exactly where it is under the skin. Once this is clear, then it is easier to target its exact location and then remove it.
Most women start to ovulate again within a few weeks of having their Implanon device removed. The time frame for conceiving after using Implanon is generally thought to be the same as when stopping other forms of hormonal contraception. In terms of long term infertility risk, Implanon does not seem to be a problem.
Some women become fertile again immediately once the Implanon is removed. Alternative forms of contraception are often recommended to women before they make an appointment to have the Implanon removed, unless they are keen to conceive.
Although the Implanon device is still intended to be effective for three years, as this “use by date” gets closer the amount of hormone it releases is not as consistently high as when first inserted. If it is left in for longer than three years, then there is an increased risk of pregnancy and ectopic (tubal) pregnancy.